The Development of Clocks Over Time
The history of timekeeping devices is an interesting one that dates back to ancient civilizations, with the first clocks made from stones and bones, which were not very accurate. Movements varied greatly depending on what day it was, or if there happened not to be any sunlight available for illumination purposes!
Stonehenge was likely an observatory for seasonal events such as equinoxes and solstices.
According to Eric Bruton, ancient civilizations modified their usual vigesimal counting system when dealing with calendars to produce a 360 day year.
The ancient Egyptians were skilled astrologers who used the stars to determine time.
Shadow clocks are an ancient way to measure the time of day. Called “shadow” because they use a rotating object as their base, like this one:
The first devices used for measuring what we call ‘sundown’ today were simply pieces of wood or metal placed directly under these carved obelisks and other shaped rocks to make them easier to see from any angle during daylight hours, but once darkness set upon them – which could happen at any time provided there was no source Lights such
The Egyptian obelisk is a magnificent piece of ancient technology found in many different tombs throughout Egypt, dating from 1800 Bc to 1090 AC!
The sundials shown on these objects are pretty straightforward; you could tell what time it was by looking at the right side up (in English) which meant that people would frequently take notice if one happened across while walking through their day.
Shadow clocks later developed into what we know today as sundials. Egyptian obelisks constructed c 3500 BC are among some examples.
The oldest known example dates back to 1500 BCE during the 19th dynasty when it was discovered in the valley Of Kings. This is one very old invention, but there are many different types like H Gardener’s Timepiece created In 1774 And Meade Solar Anemometer Used For Wind Speed estimations During the English Civil War period From the 1640s
The oldest description of a water clock or clepsydra as it’s known in Greek is from the tomb inscription for an early 18th Dynasty Egyptian court official named Amenemhet. He is identified with its invention and claims to have come up with this clever idea after finding his name written on one such object.
The closest surviving example now exists at Tel-el-Amarna, which was found near Cairo within sight distance from another famous piece – these two pieces date back more than 4500 years ago!
However, there are no recognized examples out afloat because writing didn’t exist yet but we do know that they existed via references preserved throughout history.
The ancient Greeks were not only responsible for some of the most important and influential ideas in science, but they also had a thing or two to say about clocks.
They were some of the first people to think about how we use clocks and timers in everyday life. For example, Anaxagoras was aware that water clocks could be used for time-sensitive activities while there’s this guy Plato who invented alarm clocks back around 400 BC with lead balls clanging noisily onto copper plates.
Incense clocks were first used in China around the 6th century, mostly for religious purposes but also for social gatherings or by scholars.
Due to their frequent use of Devanagari characters, American sinologist Edward H Schafer speculated that these ancient timepieces might have been invented Indianness too; as they burn evenly without a flame and because it’s safe indoors- there are no worries about fire!
To mark different hours, scented incenses (made from recipes) would change with each hour, creating an aroma specific only toward that particular day/hour.
Incense seal clocks were designed to last for one or two hours, depending on the size and shape of their seals. The spiraled sticks would be hung from home’s roofs while longer-lasting versions could sit beneath them; these long-term timekeepers often had discs made with multiple grooves that held burning resin inside.
With the gradual introduction of metal disks, craftsmen were able to create more seals with varying sizes and designs. These new tools allowed them also decorate these pieces in an aesthetically pleasing way as well as vary their grooves for changing lengths, which made them a popular gift choice at the time.
The earliest references to candle clocks date back as far as the 5th century when a Chinese poem was written by You Jianfu that described how his countryman used graduated candles at night. This technique for determining time periodized from bright lights forward and backward depending on where they stood about one another; this method would eventually spread throughout Japan until about 10 centuries ago.
Alfred the Great is often credited with inventing candle clocks. He created them out of a desire for precision. Noting that time could be measured by candles’ height and width, as well their length.
The 12th-century Muslim inventor Al-Jazari described four different designs for a candle clock in his book, The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices.
His so-called ‘scribe’ design was invented to mark the passing of 14 hours, and it used precisely engineering mechanisms that caused candles with specific dimensions to slowly push. upwards.
Every hour an indicator moved along scales based on how much time had passed since midnight – where each minute was magnitude scaled from 0–59 seconds or more accurately, 15 activity minutes past twelve o’clock.
The Hour Glass
The hourglass was a common way to measure time while at sea, and it has been used for centuries. It was first used in the 15th century and became popular quickly because it is easy to use, accurate when kept on your desk at home or work, reusable which means no more spending money constantly replacing broken ones while also being easily constructed so anyone can make their own if they wanted too!
The Hourglass goes beyond its obvious function as an instrument relating counts down from hours passed; instead, each shape carries with it certain connotations dependant upon culture – some cultures see these delays
The first known use of an hourglass goes back to 1338 when the Italian artist Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted his Allegory of Good Government. And it is speculated that these were used on ships as far back as the 11th century and complemented compass for navigation efforts.
The earliest unambiguous evidence comes from Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. Who during his circumnavigation equipped each vessel with 18 such devices in 1522, though they may have been introduced earlier by either Chinese culture or others living near seaside towns which dealt primarily in cloth trading.
Early oscillating devices in timekeepers
The three religions that had set aside time for prayer were Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Christians alone were expected to attend prayers at specific hours of the day/night.
In all these cases there was an alarm system in place which would alert someone on duty by sounding bells or ringing them with hands-free clapper devices like those used today on clocks made especially for this purpose. The forerunner device came first: it was what we now know as escapement mechanisms found within mechanical ones
The escapement is a key part of clockmaking, and its invention goes back to 1250 when Villard de Honnecourt illustrated the first device that used an early form of verge mechanism.
Another forerunner was horological Nocturna which had weights pull axles around while it struck bells by way water slowly releasing from holes along their path.
The invention of the verge and foliot escapement in c.1275 was one such important development. So much so, that it changed not only how clocks work, but also technology as we know it today!
A horizontal shaft is forced to rotate by a weight-driven crown wheel, however, can’t move freely because there’s an attached ring called a “foliot” which swings back and forth allowing each tooth on its rotating Wheel to stumble over just 1 space at a time
The first large mechanical clocks were built not only to ring the bell but also to calculate time. The tower clock at Norwich Cathedral in England was constructed around 1321-25 and is considered one of Europe’s earliest such devices.
It has not survived to this day however, there are examples from Milan which struck regularly on an hourly basis as early as 1936.
By 1410 grains mills had adapted these alarms for their own needs becoming more accurate with each passing year.
The most famous example of a timekeeping device during the medieval period was a clock designed and built by Henry de Vick in c.1360, which varied up to two hours per day.
For the next 300 years, all improvements were essentially developments based on principles laid out for this first-timer nearly 300 years before!
It was only during the 14th century that clocks began to appear in public spaces. The first clocks were striking and hung from ceilings or walls of churches as blessings from God. This practice eventually led them into homes where people wanted an easier way to keep track of time without having to wait for hand-wringing over what day/timepiece could be found at their fingertips. These early examples date back, as far as 1386 when Salisbury Cathedral’s clock made its grand debut; today you’ll find yourself looking up just Johnson Smith.
The development of the mainspring in the 15th century led to small clocks being built for the first time. The need for an escapement mechanism, which steadily controlled release stored energy and created stability across phases without sudden changes between them or rapid build-up then collapse caused by imperfections within it; resulting in two devices: stack freed (invented circa 1450) and fusee.
The invention is known as “major spring,” made its way through various designs until it was perfected around 1500 AD.
Leonardo da Vinci produced the earliest known drawings of a pendulum in 1493-1494 which illustrated an early fusee design.
Illustrated was two metal rods connected by a chain that swings back and forth, as energy from spring pushes against it, or else pulls on another end with hands wrapped around both ends to keep them stable while allowing passage for airflow underneath, so no obstruction occurs at any point along its length.
Tycho Brahe was one of the most refined and sophisticated astronomers of his time. He was able to create four clocks that measured seconds, having invented what we now know as a watch in1524
Nuremberg’s clockmaker Peter Henlein received payment for making what some believe to be the earliest example of a wristwatch.
The Italian polymath Galileo Galilei is often credited with the invention of what we now know as a clock. But it was not until after he had watched Suspended lamps at Pisa Cathedral sway back and forth that their motion inspired him to investigate how these swings were dependent on nothing more than length.
Though Galileo never constructed a clock based on his discovery, he did dictate instructions for building the first-ever pendulum clocks to his son Vincenzo before passing away.
The first accurate timekeepers depended upon the phenomenon known as harmonic motion. An object’s restoring force would act away from its equilibrium position, like a pendulum or extended spring. Moving Away From an Equilibrium Position causes Oscillations, so they can tell what was happening at any given moment.
The period of a harmonic oscillator is always consistent and will not change based on starting conditions. Making it an excellent timekeeper, as the amount that one cycle takes can be calculated without knowing how large or small their initial motion was.
The first clocks to use this type of timekeeping were built by Dutch polymath Christiaan Huygens in 1656.
Early versions earned by less than one minute per day and later ones only 10 seconds, very accurate for their times; however, both types became common after advances made it possible through the development process with pendulum-based mechanisms. Allowing them greater accuracy than ever before, and now provide hours down into minutes accurately!
The greatest clocks were designed to be accurate and durable. The verge escapement device was not as dependable in operation, so clocks with this type of motion became obsolete for long-term use.
The invention by Brahe revolutionized our understanding of how accurately we could measure stellar positions, and until then, it had been difficult because many different types wouldn’t last very well such as balance wheel or cylinder pendulum, which both took too much maintenance but now after his design came along they became more popular than ever before thanks mainly due to their simplicity.
The first pendulum clocks used wide swings of about 100° and so had short, light pendulums, as the timing device in them required fast beats to work properly, with no variation or friction involved!
After inventing an anchor mechanism that enabled longer louder sounds from these devices (since they were now keeping time without too much trouble), clockmakers found out how important it was for their designs not only to sound right but also to feel satisfyingly energetic when you hear them booming off into space overhead.
The first known anchor escapement clock was built by the English clockmaker, William Clement, in 1671 for King’s College, Cambridge. Now residing at Science Museum London.
This original design originated with Hooke though it has been argued that he didn’t create this mechanism but rather improved upon an older idea patented by Joseph Knibb.
Jesuit astronomers were instrumental in developing the earliest clock models that would later become known as pendulum clocks. They developed an unusually keen appreciation for precision, which helped them make many important scientific discoveries with their colleagues throughout Europe, during this time.
Inventors in the late 17th and early 18 centuries were constantly trying to improve timekeeping. One of these innovations is a clockwork called “the rack” which was invented by Edward Barlow, or another inventor named Daniel Quare from London around 1676-ish (though some say as early as 1675).
The repeating striking mechanism he created would chime out hours or minutes depending on what you set it for; this invention became known widely after its release with other inventors improving upon his design through various means. Including adding more features like alarms over succeeding years!
Early clockmaking in France
The early days of clockmaking in France were led by Paris and Blois, where they became known for their beautiful designs. A family with generations who practiced this craft passed down their skills to Julien Le Roy thought to be the most skillful clockmaker during the period, according to too his peers.
He went on to invent a special repeating mechanism that improved clocks and watches. This face could be opened to view the inside clockwork with incredible precision that is still used today!
He also made or supervised over 3,500 of these products during his career-ending at age 47 when he died from illness-related causes.
The invention was not only important because it gave people more control over time. But what makes this accomplishment even greater was how much scientific rivalry resulted from its creation – encouraging researchers all around France (and eventually elsewhere) to seek new ways measuring exactly how many seconds have passed since midday zero hours.
Invention Of The Gridiron Pendulum (1729)
The Yorkshire carpenter and self-taught clockmaker John Harrison invented the gridiron pendulum in 1729. This device used at least three metals of different lengths, connected to maintain its overall length when heated or cooled by our surroundings. In 1781 George Graham developed an iron bob for compensating temperature variation within this type Of clock by using a glass jar filled with mercury.
Later, the temperature compensating pendulum was improved when the mercury could be contained within its rod, allowing for tighter thermally coupling between two metals. In 1849 an alloy called invar (made up primarily of iron and nickel) eliminated earlier inventions designed to account for temperature variations.
The Marine chronometer
From 1714 to 1824, the British Government offered a prize of £20k (worth millions today) for anyone who could determine navigational errors and get their ship within 50 kilometers or 31 mi at a latitude just north of the equator – but no one ever did!
It took until 1942 before someone finally solved this feat: Using radio broadcasts transmitted continuously around the earth from coordinated locations known as Lighthouse positions which always retain UTC timekeeping Inherited through satellites dishes. Powerful transmitters send out signals once every hour regardless of whether there is daylight or not.
The newly created Board of Longitude examined proposals and awarded the prize to one author, but there were many attempts by people who wanted this reward.
One such person was Yorkshire clockmaker Jeremy Thacker, with his 1714 publication on chronometers in which he coined the term “chronometer.”
His design for sea clocks meant they would work regardless of whether a ship moved suddenly or not. These also stopped working when it came time for them to try out their ideas due largely because Huygens designed another type called ‘horizontal regulator, which became mandatory throughout all Royal Navy ships beginning on December 27th, 1733
In 1715, at the age of 22, John Harrison had already mastered many carpentry skills and went on to construct a wooden eight-day clock.
His innovative design included using wooden parts to reduce lubrication needs (and cleaning). As well as new escapement technology, for improved accuracy. Two different metals were used because it’s easier than having them alloys – this helped solve problems caused by temperature variation while marine environments are more unstable than land-based ones!
In addition, Graham arranged financial assistance so long Distance would be able to build his sea timepiece after proving its usefulness through accurate calculations regarding ship positions across vast ocean surfaces.
For 30 long years, John Harrison labored to create a clock that could survive underwater and still keep time. And all that dedication paid off when his H1 design passed all tests in 1736, and he won the Longitude prize two years later!
Later designs such as “H2” (finished around 1739) helped him perfect more sophisticated mechanisms, while also making sure they were water-resistant. It was not until after completing sea trials during the winter of 1761–1762, that the results showed his timepiece to be three times more accurate than needed to earn Lord Hyams’ prize.
In 1815, the prolific English inventor Francis Ronalds created what we now know as an electric clock. Unlike their predecessors that were powered with dry piles and had long lifetimes but were unreliable due to varying electrical properties in air temperature or humidity levels; this new design was more reliable because it used a low voltage battery that could be controlled easier than before – meaning there would no longer need two different types (one for warm weather/higher moisture content) like those found on ships at sea where they needed fast results while another type might take weeks if not months before needing replacement!
When the Scottish clock and instrument maker Alexander Bain first used electricity to sustain his pendulum clocks’ motion. He could be credited with inventing electric clocks.
On January 11th, 1841, chronometer John Barwise take out a patent describing just such an invention – one that utilized electromagnetic forces for its timing mechanism instead of relying exclusively on gravity or elastic energy. Like most other contemporary versions did at the time (and still do today).
Later Wheatstone came up with his version, but it wasn’t until November 1840 when Bain rightfully won a legal battle to establish himself as the inventor.
In 1857, the French physicist Jules Lissajous showed how an electric current can be used, to vibrate a tuning fork indefinitely and was probably one of, if not the first person who used this invention as a method for accurately measuring frequency.
His discovery became known worldwide when he won an award from King Louis Philippe I at age 24 years old!
The piezoelectric properties between crystalline quartz were discovered by Pierre Curie while working on developing more practical uses out their findings during the 1880s But it wasn’t until 1921 that we had our very own “electric driven” pendulum clock made specifically designed
Development Of The Modern Quartz Timer
The development of the modern quartz timer can be traced to a succession of innovations by electrician William Eccles. His design utilized an electrical oscillator that relieved dampening from mechanical timers and allowed for more stability. Especially on a frequency that was previously achievable only through chemical reactions or vacuum tubes, at either end with their drawbacks respectively.
This paved way towards creating what we know today as “quartz crystals”. The first instance where such a device became publicly accessible occurred nearly 20 years later when American engineer Walter G. Cady built upon earlier work done under contract.
In the 1930s, quartz clocks were developed as precise time measurement devices in laboratory settings – bulky and delicate counting electronics limited their use elsewhere.
One such clock could measure small weekly fluctuations of the earth’s rotation rate.
Quartz remains on the basis for all current precision measurements worldwide today!